The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary

The CAD (Chicago Assyrian Dictionary) project was initiated in the early 1920s, not long after James Henry Breasted founded the Oriental Institute in 1919, and barely one hundred years after the decipherment of the cuneiform script. This initial decipherment, and the soon-to-follow achievements in understanding the languages in which the hundreds of thousands of clay tablets were inscribed, opened an unsuspected treasure-house for the study and appreciation of one of the world’s oldest civilizations.

The Chicago Assyrian Dictionary was conceived to provide more than lexical information alone, more than a one-to-one equivalent between Akkadian and English words. By presenting each word in a meaningful context, usually with a full and idiomatic translation, it recreates the cultural milieu and thus in many ways assumes the function of an encyclopedia. Its source material ranges in time from the third millennium B.C. to the first century A.D., and in geographic area from the Mediterranean Sea in the west to the Zagros Mountains in the east.

Completed in 2010, the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary has become an invaluable source for the study of the civilizations of the ancient Near East, their political and cultural history, their achievements in the sciences of medicine, astronomy, mathematics, linguistics, and the timeless beauty of their poetry.

You can donlowd or visit the website of the dictionary HERE

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Eye Idol Plaque

Mesopotamian Eye Idol Plaque, Euphrates Valley, Late Uruk Period, Late 4th ML BC

This type of carving is known as an ‘eye idol’, and may have been an offering left at a temple. Eye idols were also made in the form of free standing statuettes (example). Wide eyes are believed to have been a demonstration of attentiveness to the gods in much of Mesopotamian art.

The Uruk period (c. 4000 to 3100 BC) existed from the protohistoric Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age period in the history of Mesopotamia, following the Ubaid period and succeeded by the Jemdet Nasr period. Named after the Sumerian city of Uruk,  this period saw the emergence of urban life in Mesopotamia. It was followed by the Sumerian civilization. The late Uruk period (34th to 32nd centuries) saw the gradual emergence of the cuneiform script and corresponds to the Early Bronze Age; it may also be called the Protoliterate period.

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Statue of Ningal

Statue of the Sumerian reed goddess Ningal found at Ur (in modern day Iraq), 1953-1935 B.C.

Diorite, Penn-museum                    


Ningal was the daughter of Enki and Ningikurga and was the mother of Inanna, Utu, and Ereshkigal.

The statue contains an inscription on the side (picture to the right) from a priestess named Enannatumma, the daughter of Ishem-Dagan, possibly a Sumerian king.  The inscription says that the statue itself is dedicated to the goddess Ningal.

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The drinking God

God/Ilu seated on his throne, as depicted on a Ugaritic stele. Note the horns on his head. (Museum of Aleppo)

 

The following text is from ancient Ugarit (located in modern Syria), a city whose textual archives from the 15th-13th centuries BCE have provided a huge trove of literary epics, mythic lore, and linguistic data.

Ever wonder where the phrases “hair of the dog” and “he looks like hell” first appeared?  Look no further.  This is the epic saga of how God (Ilu/El, the father god in Levantine religion) got so drunk that his sons had to carry him to bed, while their lady friends cooked up a hangover cure.  Really.


I. The Gods Feast

God slaughtered venison in his home, [1]
       livestock within his palace,
       and welcomed the gods to the feast.
The gods ate and drank;
       they grew tipsy on wine,
       drunk on beer.

Moon-God Yarihu prepared his goblet;
       like a dog, he clambered [2]
       underneath the table.
Each god who recognized him
       prepared him scraps of meat —
but each god who did not recognized him
       hit him with a stick, [3]
       underneath the table.

When Astarte and Anat arrived,
       Astarte offered him a rump steak,
       and Anat a shoulder cut. [4]
The gatekeeper of God’s house scolded them:
       “Hey! Why are you offering a dog rump steak,
       offering a shoulder cut to a mongrel?
He scolded God, his father: “He is sitting (there)!” [5]

II. God Over-Indulges

God invited in the drinkers;
       God sat down in his saloon.
He grew tipsy on wine,
       drunk on beer.
God headed back to his house
       and entered his chambers.
They loaded him onto Thukamunu and Shunamu, his sons,
       and the two chastized the groaning man, [6]
       he who had horns and a tail.
He soiled himself with shit and piss,
       and God fell down as if dead;
       God (looked) like someone descending to Hades.

Anat and Astarte began to hunt.

[The next several lines are nearly unreadable; the only legible phrases are “holy,” “Astarte and Anat,” and “and with them, she brought back.”  Most scholars assume that the women are hunting down the ingredients for their cure.]

As soon as she treated (him), he was suddenly revived.

III. The Medical Treatment

The following should be placed:
on his forehead, the hairs of a dog, [7]
and (on) the head, colocynth, and (on) his navel. [8]
At the same time, he should drink green olive juice. [9]

Source: The Marzeah in the Prophetic Literature: References and Allusions in Light, by John L. MacLaughlin (2001). pp.24–6. ISBN 9004099956. Quoted as fair use.


[1] “Venison” is used in the archaic sense of “any animal hunted for meat.”  The exact species of animal being eaten is unclear.

[2] Scholars are divided here; this verb may mean one of several dog-like activities: crawling, digging, or even swishing a tail.

[3] Alternately, Yarihu could be the subject: “if a god doesn’t notice him, [Yarihu] hits [the other god] with a stick.”  That alternative makes a bit more narrative sense, to be honest.  However, this version works better with my theory about the dog hair (cf. note 7): for whatever reason, the gods give a painful hangover to drinkers whom they don’t recognize.

[4] Again, the meat identifications are a bit tentative.  But if they are accurate, they may be allusions to the goddess’s associations; Astarte’s domain included sexuality, connected to the thigh (cf. Enkidu throwing the Bull of Heaven’s thigh at Ishtar [=Astarte]), while Anat was associated with warfare and the strength of arm and shoulder.

[5] Most translations include “He is sitting” with the next stanza; either this line continues the direct speech (“Scold God, his father!”) or adds an addendum (“He [also] scolds God, his father.”).  The problem with that line division is that it creates an odd redundancy: Ilu is sitting, then calls for his fellow drinkers, then sits again.

[6] Here I follow Noegel, who reads the Ugaritic ḥabayu as an epithet for Ilu, mumbling and groaning like a mooing cow in his intoxication.  Since Ilu is frequently described as a bull, the horns and tail are not surprising attributes; they may emphasize that while drunk, he resembles a strong but unthinking animal.  (Fun fact: Ilu’s title is specifically ṯôru Ilu, “Bull God.”  Ṯôru is probably one of the rare words so ancient that it’s shared by Semitic and Indo-European languages — so it’s ultimately related to “taurus” and “steer.”)  The other alternative, which was the mainstream translation for many years, translates Habayu as a demonic figure who appears on the scene, frightening Ilu until he soils himself.  (If this reading is accurate, an allusion to the horned Habayu may also appear in the Hebrew Bible in Habakkuk 3:4.)

[7] Placing dog hairs on the forehead clearly has no modern medical value; while the motives behind ancient magico-medical treatments are not always straightforward, the fact that a dog is mentioned twice earlier in the story is likely no coincidence.  (A dog may have appeared a third time in the textual gap if it was the women’s prey; their verb does normally refer to animal hunting, not vegetable harvesting.)  There’s no scholarly consensus about the purpose of the ingredient.  My very tentative guess is that the dog hairs ritually place the patient in the role of Yarihu, who acted “like a dog” in the first section of the story.  Despite the chastising of Ilu’s gatekeeper, the gods feed Yarihu scraps of meat and allow him to enjoy his drink — unless they don’t recognize him, in which they beat him, perhaps causing the headache of a hangover.  In contrast, Ilu’s attempt at maintaining dignity leaves him unconscious in his own excrement.  By humbling himself to the role of a dog, the patient will receive divine pity.

[8] There is some dispute over the meaning of this line, although “head” and “his navel” are pretty straightforward.  The term in between (PQQ) could be two words — “mouth (and) throat” — or a single name, perhaps for a plant.  In Akkadian, peqqūtu/peqû is a name for the colocynth, a bitter melon that’s widespread in the Middle East.  The colocynth was used extensively in medical concoctions in the ancient world, and its notoriously bitter flavor might further have shocked an unconscious patient into wakefulness, so I have gone with this translation.  If the term means “mouth (and) throat,” it could refer either to applying the dog hairs to those locations on the patient, or to sacrificing a dog and literally placing its head, mouth, and throat on the patient.

[9] “Green olive juice” is, more literally, “the blood/juice of an olive of autumn.”  Since ripe olives are harvested in November/December, an “autumn olive” may have been a green (i.e. unripe) olive, as contrasted to a ripe “winter olive.”  The oil from unripe olives is especially bitter and grassy, so it could have assisted the colocynth in waking the patient.  However (contra most translations), I don’t think that this necessarily refers to oil, since Ugaritic has another perfectly good word for oil.  Amurca, the liquid byproduct of olive oil production, is bitter-tasting and dark-colored, and it inhibits food-borne pathogens.  The dark color would explain the term “blood” (not the normal term for juice, let alone oil), and the bitter flavor and antibiotic properties would explain its medical use.

 

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Une plainte de Service à la clientèle De 1750 BC

 

Une lettre inscrite dans une ancienne tablette d’argile, datant de 1750 avant JC correspondant à la période de la vieille Babylone, et actuellement au British Museum, pourrait être l’une des plus anciennes lettre de plainte de service à la clientèle trouvé. La plainte a été déposée par un certain Nanni à Ea-Nasir concernant la livraison de la mauvaise qualité du minerai de cuivre après un voyage de golfe et sur les directives erronées et des retards d’une nouvelle livraison. La traduction complète, aurait des Lettres de livres de la Mésopotamie par Assyriologist A. Leo Oppenheim, est reproduit ci-dessous. Nanni semble être très en colère. « Dites-Ea-Nasir: Nanni envoie le message suivant: Lorsque vous êtes venu, vous avez dit à moi comme suit:

«Je vais donner Gimil-Sin (quand il vient) fines lingots de cuivre de qualité. » Vous avez quitté l’époque, mais vous ne faites pas ce que vous me promis. Vous mettez lingots qui ne sont pas bonnes avant mon messager (Sit-Sin) et a dit: « Si vous voulez les prendre, prenez-les, si vous ne voulez pas de les prendre, aller loin » Pour qui me prenez-vous, que vous traitez quelqu’un comme moi avec un tel mépris? Je l’ai envoyé comme messagers messieurs comme nous pour recueillir le sac avec mon argent (déposé avec vous), mais vous me ai traités avec mépris en les renvoyant à moi les mains vides à plusieurs reprises, et que par le territoire ennemi. Y at-il quelqu’un parmi les marchands qui commercent avec Telmun qui m’a traités de cette façon? Vous traitez seul mon messager avec mépris! En raison de ce que l’un (insignifiante) mine d’argent que je dois (?), Vous hésitez à parler d’une telle manière, alors que je vous ai donné le palais en votre nom £ 1080 de cuivre, et umi-abum a également compte tenu de £ 1080 de cuivre, en dehors de ce que nous avons à la fois avions écrit sur une tablette étanche à être gardés dans le temple de Samas. Comment avez-vous me traité pour que le cuivre? Vous avez retenu mon sac de l’argent de moi en territoire ennemi; il est maintenant à vous de rétablir (mon argent) pour me en entier. Prendre connaissance que (à partir de maintenant) Je ne vais pas accepter ici toute cuivre de vous qui est pas de belle qualité. Je vais (à partir de maintenant) sélectionner et prendre les lingots individuellement dans ma propre cour, et je vais exercer mon droit contre vous de rejet parce que vous me l’avez traitée avec mépris. »

Ea-Nasir était un négociant en lingots de cuivre de Magan et a été actif dans les affaires au tournant du XIXe siècle av. Il apparaît comme un personnage peu scrupuleux, ou peut-être qu’il est juste tombé sur les moments difficiles à un moment donné dans sa carrière, car il ya un certain nombre de lettres de colère de ses partisans à Ur alors qu’il est absent dans Dilmun plaint qu’il n’a pas livré le biens promis. Selon le site du British Museum , la tablette d’argile est d’environ 1750 avant JC, alors que Hoyland dit Ea-Nasir était un marchand siècle BC 19. Iâ € ™ m ne sais pas qui est plus correct. La tablette d’argile elle-même a été excavé d’Ur, dans le sud de l’Irak, en 1953.

 

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